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sepia officinalis linn

A solvent gradient was used to mimic the earlier separations, and fractions were collected every 3 min. 8, e.g. The common procedure was to add 200 μl of this solution to the venom, sonicate the sample for 10 min, vortex, and then centrifuge the insoluble material into a pellet at 12,000 g for 5 min. In all cases, the resulting mass spectra were complicated with peptides of multiple charge states that co-eluted with the peptides of interest (i.e. These toxins block both gastropod and vertebrate Na+ channels and also affect Ca2+ channels at high concentration (Daly et al., 2004). S3. Organic solvents were removed from the LC fractions with the SpeedVac, and samples were stored at 4°C. Information provided on this Web site is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute Fisheries Dept. 10A). Homoeopathic drug Sepia is prepared from the ink of Sepia officinalis Linn. INTRODUCTION. Fraction B (right) contains purified cal12b at 5194 Da. An index of expression for each Cal12.1 variant (indicated on the x-axis) was computed as the mean (±s.e.m.) We believe that these sequences probably do not represent polymerase errors, for the following reasons. Given these differences and the uncertainties in secondary structure, we feel that assignment of cal12a and cal12b peptides (and all the other Cal12.1 and Cal12.2 members) to a specific functional type of conotoxins remains an open question. Peptides were extracted from the venom ducts of six individuals and analyzed by LC–MS, with a focus on the more hydrophobic peptides. Toxin expression by individual snails. We assume that the active peptides in venom preparations tested against both cephalopods and gastropods included cal12a and/or cal12b, and the lack of effect in gastropods suggests that cal12a and cal12b preferentially block neuronal Na+ channels in cephalopods, with gastropod channels being more resistant. Crossref, PubMed, ISI, Google Scholar GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. In this case, major qualitative differences between individual snails were limited to milked venom samples, with crude venom in the duct being much more consistent. 7D), both isoforms (Fig. The functional effects of the 6-Cys toxin, Conus vexillum 8, are not known, but this sequence also encodes a framework 6/7 conotoxin (Kauferstein et al., 2005). In general, the most commonly expressed sequence overall was Cal12.1.3a, but even here substantial individual variability existed. The diet of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) y Sepia elegans (Blainville, 1827) (Cephalopoda: Sepioidea) from the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain). At least 15 homologues of these toxins were found by molecular cloning, and constitute the Cal12.1 family of cDNAs. FAO, FI and 18 Sep 1978 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands) Meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Assessment of Cephalopod Stocks Further analysis was performed by fragmenting each peptide before and after the reduction–alkylation procedure. Electrodes had a resistance of <0.7 MΩ when filled with internal recording solution, and series resistance compensation was employed to the greatest extent possible. Examination of the isotopic distribution of the parent mass region of each peptide reveals a mass spectrum containing an ambiguous mono-isotopic peak with a large spread of more than 12 detectable isotopes for both peptides (supplementary material Fig. Sepia officinalis Linn. 208, 7–11. Peaks labeled A and B contained toxins that blocked INa. CURRENT SYSTEMATIC STATUS. The low-mass fragment ions containing bromine show the characteristic isotopic pattern (supplementary material Fig. Sepia prashadi. . Hiroshi Hatanaka Far Seas Fisheries Research Laboratory 1 000 Orido, Shimizu 424 Japan. The leader sequences of Cal12.1.1a and Cal12.2a are nearly identical, but the propeptide regions are distinct (Fig. Of a total of 422 sequences recovered from these 12 snails, Cal12.1.3a was by far the most common (324 sequences in 11 snails), followed by Cal12.1.2b (56 sequences in 2 snails), Cal12.1.1a (17 sequences in 7 snails), Cal12.1.1b (12 sequences in 2 snails), Cal12.1.1d and Cal12.1.2e (6 sequences in 1 snail each). (Asteraceae) is used medicinally in Europe, China and India amongst several places in the world. GenBank accession numbers are given below the name of each Cal12.2 variant. Methodological improvements during the course of the project enabled later biochemical and molecular procedures to be carried out on smaller volumes of venom collected from individual snails. Inclusion of the only other framework 12 conotoxins (GlaTxX and GlaMrII) in this O+2 classification is questionable because of the extremely different leader sequences (Fig. 199 (3): 211-225. For purification purposes, the extruded crude venom was separated into liquid chromatography (LC) fractions as described below and then dried. S3, inset of y6 ion). Please log in to add an alert for this article. 6C,D. Vědecká synonyma. We have named this sequence Cal12.2a (GenBank EF644196), and its complete amino acid sequence is provided in Fig. Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences – a case study using trawl fishery data in French Atlantic coastal, English Channel, and adjacent waters. They are eaten by sharks, fish and other cuttlefish. The project described was supported the National Science Foundation (NSF) by grant no. Services advises you to always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified Formal Name: Sepia Officinalis. J. Linn. 10C) is characteristic of δ- and μO-toxins, as well as Cal12.1 members, low hydrophobicity in the C2-C3 and C4-C5 loops, as exists in Cal12.1, is not typical of δ- and μO-toxins. RNA from an individual duct was reverse transcribed using either the SuperScript II or AccuScript High Fidelity (Stratagene) enzyme. With supporting detail drawings A-F. All detectable blocking activity of INa resided in fraction 5. 7. 208, 7–11.doi:10.2307/3593095. See text for details. or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider. Find out more about the breadth of his scientific contribution in a Special Issue dedicated to his work. However, this drug is particularly used to treat several gynaecological complaints. Among the changeable camouflage patterns of cuttlefish, disruptive patterning is shown in response to certain features of light objects in the visual background. In general, the variable regions form the active surface that defines target specificity. Sepia officinalis. A similar pattern occurs at position 21, where an acidic residue (Glu or Asp) occurs in Cal12.1.1, but Ser is found in Cal12.1.3. of fractions found in 37 individual snails. We therefore deemed a sequence to be valid only if it could not have been a theoretical recombination product of other sequences found in the same snail. In four snails it was the only transcript found (19–35 sequences), but in three snails it was not detected at all (22–48 clones sequenced). Body relatively broad and somewhat flattened so as to be oval in cross section. Linnæus, Carolus. 2005 Disruptive body pattern of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) requires visual information regarding edges and contrast of objects in natural substrate backgrounds. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Journal of Experimental Biology. In A, B and D, the control trace is solid, the test trace (in venom) is indicated by the arrow, and the dotted trace represents the maximum degree of reversal observed after washing out the toxin. The Temperament of Sepia officinalis Linn is 3rd order, warm and dry. C11 to C16 and W38 to T42), a high degree of variability exists elsewhere. Essentially free of congeneric competitors, it preys on a wider variety of organisms than any other cone snail. A high degree of diversity clearly exists in the Cal12.1 family of cDNAs, but the 15 different variants reported in this paper represent a conservative estimate. C. californicus is the most generalist feeder known within the genus, and a correlation thus exists between the diversity of prey types and the battery of putative Cal12.1 peptide isoforms. Purification of two active toxins from C. californicus crude venom. Alternatively, if C2 and C6 of the Cal12.1-encoded peptide were linked as depicted in Fig. vermiforms (polychaetes or hemichordates), molluscs or fish, with many preying on specific taxa within these groups (Rockel et al., 1995). Through MS analysis we have demonstrated that cal12a has a single Gla residue at position 21, whereas cal12b has an Asp substitution at this site. Juvenile specimens of Sepia officinalis Linn. MS analysis of disulfide bonds in cal12b. Beaks of 146 specimens of Sepia officinalis(77 females, 69 males) were examined. The alignment has been centered on the vicinal cysteines and a single gap introduced in the MrVIB sequence. Conotoxin superfamilies are defined primarily by their leader sequences (Halai and Craik, 2009; Terlau and Olivera, 2004). Mém. Er diente als Milzpflanze, gegen die Pest, bei Rückenschmerzen, Husten und Augenleiden. We propose that the basic O-structure is embedded within the 8-Cys-framework defining Cal12 members: C(6-7)C(4)-C1(1)C2(4-8)C3C4(4)C5(4-5)C6, where C1–C6 represent the Cys residues analogous to those of MrVIB. The expression of skin papillae in Sepia officinalis is guided by vision rather than by tactile feedback from the substrate , but little is known about the visual background stimuli that evoke the variable extension or retraction of skin papillae. Testing gastropods that were actually preyed on by C. californicus would be valuable, as would the testing of Ca2+ and K+ currents in ecologically relevant gastropods. Predicted primary structures of Cal12.1.1a and Cal12.2a in comparison with selected O-type toxins from other Conus species. Sequencing was accomplished with Big Dye terminator chemistry (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) utilizing either ABI model 377 or 3100 automatic sequencers. 1758 was collected in American Samoa and shipped to Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, CA, USA. Seepiateks nimetatakse ka perekondi Rossia ja Sepiola. No information regarding Sepia officinalis Linn's substitute is currently available. [15] [16] [11] IUCN kategoriserar arten globalt som livskraftig. Search facet . Additional sequences encoding isoforms of Cal12.2 were also generated from this library, with M13F and M13R (or T7) primers (Table 1). vol. Recombination during PCR or cloning (Meyerhans et al., 1990) is more difficult to assess, and a mixture of Cal12.1 mRNAs in any given snail could theoretically give rise to PCR or cloning-induced chimeras. A published leader sequence is available for only one other framework 12 peptide, GlaTxX (Brown et al., 2005), but it has no similarity with the leader of the Cal12 members. The goal of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile of mantle and tentacle of male and female Sepia officinalis, sampled at four seasons from the Mediterranean sea of Tunisia. Helen Skaer, Mike O'Donnell and Julian Dow remember Simon in their affectionate Obituary. Sepia officinalis Linn's Active constituents: No information regarding Sepia officinalis Linn's antidot is currently available. and W.F.G.) 66, no1, 1999: pp. In general, the amino acid composition of intra-Cys loops of such closely related toxins is thought to confer specificity towards a high-affinity molecular target (McIntosh and Jones, 2001; Norton and Olivera, 2006; Woodward et al., 1990). Prominent catches of unidentified cuttlefishes (Sepia spp. Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758. After cycling was complete, an additional extension time of 7 min at 72°C was allowed. Peptides within a superfamily generally target different members of a specific functional class of protein (McIntosh and Jones, 2001). At least six distinct Na+-channel genes exist in teleost fishes, three in molluscs and four in annelid worms (Goldin, 2002), and considerable sequence variation exists between species within each group. (A,B) The NSI-IT mass spectra collected for the peptide in the native (A) and reduced–alkylated (B) form. As discussed in the Results, this sequence characterizes the peptides cal12a and cal12b, with position 17 being a modified tryptophan residue. For example, 363 amplifications from 15 snails designed to search for variants in a putative 6-Cys conotoxin (unpublished work of C.E., T.A.R., Z.L., N. T. Pierce, J.V.S. A second round of HPLC purification yielded Na+-channel blocking activity in subfraction 8 of nine tested (Fig. cal12a (5253 Da) and cal12b (5194 Da) elute between 25 and 30 min. Variation in the peptide types in the venom of individuals of another species, C. striatus, has also been reported (Jakubowski et al., 2005). Octopus and fish are also consumed (Kohn, 1966; Stewart and Gilly, 2005). (Sepia officinalis )(Linn é, 1758.) Presented by Médi-T. SEPIA OFFICINALIS. Functional properties of the Gla peptides have not been reported. Conotoxin precursors contain a hydrophobic leader (signal) sequence and pro-peptide region, both of which are removed by proteolysis during biosynthesis, and the primary structure of the signal sequence is generally highly conserved between toxins having identical Cys-frameworks. Stasis and thereby ptosis of viscera and weariness and misery. 1758. Der Zwergtintenfisch-Nachwuchs … Officinalis ist mittellateinisch und bedeutet «in der Apotheke gebräuchlich». Lue lisää nyt AutoJerry kokemuksia . 2A,B). Although this may have resulted from the concentration of any active peptides in the venom samples simply being too low to block a significant amount of INa, it may also reflect the fact that neither gastropod tested is a natural prey.

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